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What is the most basic difference between Dynamic and Condenser?

What is the most basic difference between Dynamic and Condenser?

Update Time:2020-07-23
Last week I shared with you how to check whether a microphone is suitable for you based on the frequency response. Next is the driving method of the microphone. In fact, there are 3 types of microphones,  Dynamic,  Condenser, and Ribbon.

The Ribbon microphone is a microphone that uses aluminum ribbon vibration to generate a signal. It's not very common, so I won't introduce it this time. If you really have the opportunity to use it, just keep in mind that you should never use Phantom power, or your ribbon mic will be burned out, and you will have to spend a lot of money to repair it.

What is the most basic difference between Dynamic and Condenser?

Dynamic Microphone

There is a coil and a magnet in it. After receiving the sound wave, it will vibrate and convert the sound wave into a current signal.

The microphone that receives sound in this way has several characteristics:

1st, it is not sensitive. Because the current generated by vibrating the permanent magnet is relatively small, it is more difficult to receive relatively small sounds, and the performance of high and low frequencies is not so ideal.

2nd, it can accept a fairly large sound signal. Because it is very insensitive, it is especially suitable for very loud volume, such as drum and guitar sounds.

3rd, it is very durable. Since it does not have a sophisticated electronic circuit, it is basically a medium that converts sound waves purely by physical movement, so if you accidentally drop it from the third floor, it may still be fine. (But don't do this deliberately, no one is responsible except yourself.)

4th, it is relatively cheap. Because of its own characteristics, it is low cost, simple and easy to use.

To put it simply, the shortcomings of Dynamic are also its advantages, making it widely used in stage performances and recording studio drum kits and guitar speakers. Some rock bands prefer the unmodified characteristics of this microphone, and insist on using this microphone when recording vocals in the studio. I personally think that as long as it is paired with a good preamp, Dynamic can also record quite good vocals.

Condenser Mic

Condenser Mic needs to be driven by electricity. It has two energized membranes (Capsule), which change the distance between the two metal sheets to generate current signals by changing the distance between the two metal sheets when receiving sound.

1st, it needs an external power supply, whether it is the built-in battery or the Phantom power on the mixer or pre-amp. Phantom power refers to an invisible power supply that is fed back into the microphone circuit. Think of it as a microphone socket.

2nd, it is very sensitive. Because the metal piece is very light, only a slight sound wave can make it vibrate. The reception performance for each frequency is quite good.

3rd, because it is very sensitive, please handle it with care. The particularly large audio capacity will damage it. Dropping it on the carpet accidentally may cause Irreparable  damage. So you see that these condensor mics are carefully stored in a moisture-proof box and are filled with sponge pads, while Dynamic mics are casually packed in leather cases and thrown around.

4th, it is relatively expensive. Because it has more precision parts and complicated manufacturing process, even a condenser microphone without any additional functions can be more expensive than a Dynamic microphone with lowered bass pickup.

Some people will say that Conderser is used for advanced recording. You can't completely object to this sentence. After all, the cost of purchase and maintenance makes it look very noble, but when it comes to recording quality, I think different people have different opinions. You have to remember that all microphone features are designed to allow you to choose the most suitable microphone according to the situation. If an EMO band came to the studio to recording song with roar ,scream , even if you give you a lot of money, I don’t think you will give it a condenser mic to sing...